Posted on November 2nd, 2009 No comments
Many people consider that the first major modern published conceptual discussion on human security was contained in the 1994 Human Development Report (warning: link is to a .pdf), and extended by Commission on Human Security (2003) and others.
Human security has been characterized as people- centric “safety from chronic threats such as hunger, disease and repression as well as protection from sudden and harmful disruptions in the patterns of daily life – whether in homes, in jobs, or in communities” (UNDP 1994), and postulated to include economic, food, health, environmental, political, community/social, and individual personal security from hostile actions by foreign or domestic antagonists, or by circumstances which can be managed by good governance (such as good preparation for, and response to, environmental or cultural threats- hazards- disasters). Simply stated, human security encompasses both “freedom from fear” and “freedom from want” (UNDP 1994) – which is considered borrowed from Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms Speech.
Human Security and national security are sometimes considered as complements when they are in harmonic balance. Actually, this Website considers national security to be a subset of Human Security, a detail which sometimes gets more attention than the larger requirement (and thus becomes the tail that [not wags, but actually] “eats” the dog). Whether national security should be reduced in focus (and funds redeployed for broader human security enhancements), or human security efforts be stepped up to balance an un-reduced national security focus is a political matter, one that is likely to change with time, place, and personalities. This Website does not editorialize in this regard, other than to hope that better balance, and progress in broader human security requirements, be made.
Human security is considered to be multidimensional. It addresses people’s dignity and sense of self- worth as well as material and physical concerns of peace, harmony, safety, and [for want of a better word] basic comfort in their homes, communities, countries, and Planet Earth. It concerns people- centric protection from self- centred attempts at hegemony by individual, institutional/corporatist, pseudo- religious, or governmental self- interests.
Some specialists consider that poverty and inequality are root impediments to human security.
The 1994 HDR contained a draft “social world charter” (that the authors of the HDR hoped would be adopted by world leaders) in which it advocated for the United Nations to “become the principal custodian of our global human security” (UNDP 1994, p. 6).
- However, one could argue that human security watchdog functions should not be delegated to a “single point of possible failure” but should be watched over by a diversity of stakeholders.
- Thus, one might recommend instead that governments, civil society, individual advocates, and the United Nations might each watch, and hold accountable, everyone’s actions or inactions toward enhanced human security – and the results of such action/inaction.
But is Human Security a new concept?
No. As noted by Surin Pitsuwan, current Secretary-General of ASEAN and a member of the Commission on Human Security, the concept of human security is quite old, having been discussed by numerous of the great philosophers. In a keynote address (warning: link is direct to a .pdf) at a 2008 conference on Mainstreaming Human Security at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Khun Dr. Surin noted that “human security is the primary purpose of organizing a State in the beginning” and that theorists such as Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau and Hume wrote about various aspects of human security.
But, perhaps in some societies, the ascendancy of focus on national security has been for so long, and has been so intense, that the broader context of human security has atrophied. Or, as noted by Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh, Director, CERI Program for Peace and Human Security, Paris, perhaps “distorted as a notion for others and by others.”
Perhaps, a challenge is:
- When people wax forcefully about national security – are they making themselves accountable for what they may be doing for, or against, broader requirements for human security (when they try to co-opt attention away from such broader necessity by their narrower interest)?
- The process of seeking, selecting, culling, vetting, and crafting component indicators, and
- Working with others, including those already embarked on characterizations of peace, incarceration, gender / diversity, corruption and governance, environment, and empowerment - we should all begin to move toward a better understanding
- Of what’s now possible to characterize;
- Of the character of societies - partly fostered through the HSI, its constituent data and indicators, and through the knowledge created by various groups working on their own aspects of characterizing human security; and
- About our target of human security and its improvement.
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N.B. If you’re looking for our “definition” of human security, can we wait on this a bit? Consistent with the concept sketched (but hardly set in concrete) above, we believe that it’s worth getting on with the challenge of crafting a HSI. In the spirit [if not the exact words] of Lord Kelvin “If you can’t begin to measure it - how can you expect to improve it?” We believe that:
Posted on November 1st, 2009 No comments
The Human Security Index (HSI) was first publicly released at the (GIS-IDEAS 2008) Conference “Towards a Sustainable and Creative Humanosphere” in 2008. A refined version (direct link to the .pdf ) was published by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific in 2009.
The HSI covers 200 countries (or societies), and is intended to represent the recent-to-current situation. Though presented in the spirit of the Human Development Index (HDI) it is not currently intended to become an annual publication. After all, societies rarely change so quickly… Rather, from the outset, the main goal of the effort is to find ways to support positive efforts in Human Security Index development and use, including
- Pioneer developers of data and topical indicators;
- Enhancements of this prototype into a better HSI; and
- Visions, strategies, policies, and activities aimed at improving human security at community, district, provincial, national, and global levels.
Here is the summary of the paper, edited from the two versions linked to above:
Introduction and Rationale:
Since 1990, the Human Development Index has revolutionized discussions about human development. However, it suffers from two deficiencies, which can now be mitigated:
- geographic incompleteness (addressed here) and
- insufficiently “on-target” representation of economy, knowledge, and “a long and healthy life” at the level of the individual.
Release of the Human Security Index:
This report summarizes attempts to rectify the second of those deficiencies by creating an equitability Enhanced Human Development Index.
In addition, steady advances in characterizing different aspects of the human condition have resulted in indicators, covering varying numbers of countries, on a wide variety of subjects. Thus, if one were challenged to create an index on the condition of people-centric Human Security, such as the authors of the Human Development Index faced in 1990 and expanded qualitatively in 1994, one could now begin to do so – at least for the sake of discussion and resultant improvements. Such a prototype Human Security Index is presented and initially assessed here.
Initial findings are consistent with those of some sustainability and governance indicators – that stereotypical material development needs to be harmonized by good governance aimed at peacefulness, fair circumstances to all people, and long-term environmental sustainability. The data show that most countries are characterized (in the components of the prototype index) by one or more relative strengths, and also one or more weaknesses, which might help them to focus on areas for improvements. Indeed, no country ranks above .800 (on a 0-1.000 scale as in the Human Development Index) in every component.
Another result of this work is the indication that economies which most heavily pursue GDP-oriented “development” may do so at the expense of other priorities, and are not necessarily highly developed societies, in terms of equitability, social fabric, or human security. These societal characteristics are arguably more important to peace-of-mind for all people than raw GDP per capita - especially for the middle class and below that benefit less from raw GDP enrichment processes.
The Human Development Reports of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) pushed the envelope significantly beyond thinking of “development” simply as increased GDP per capita - to also encompass such benefits as health and education. This paper adds the proposal that equatibility of access to financial, healthcare, and educational resources is a fundamental aspect of human development.
The social fabric characterizations introduced here can now push the envelope even farther. Thanks to the work of many organizations in compiling appropriate data, and formulating applicable topical indicators, we may now begin to further characterize human security and societal development, and perhaps help proactive planners to rectify challenges faced by societies in multi-faceted but essential dimensions of life.
The purposes of this Website are
- To improve access to the Human Security Index and its components;
- To encourage reasoned discussion on various complementary (or competitive?) indicators in some topical components – such as fostering diversity, peacefulness, environmental protection, freedom from corruption, and information empowerment; and
- To foster discussion that can improve design, implementation and benefits of/from the HSI.
The United Nations publication has the following Table of Contents:
—1.1 Background – the Human Development Index
—1.2 Human Security as a concept
—1.3 Extending the Human Development Index- an Earth Observation approach
2. AN ENHANCED (INCLUSIVE) HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX
—2.1 Selection of input parameters
—2.2 Computation of an Equitability/Inclusiveness Index and an Enhanced HDI
—2.3 Discussion of the Equitability/Inclusiveness Index and the Enhanced HDI
3. A PROTOTYPE HUMAN SECURITY INDEX
—3.1 Constructing a Human Security Index
—3.2 Discussion of the Social Fabric Index and the Human Security Index
4. ADDITIONAL DISCUSSION
—4.1 General discussion
—4.2 Discussion on each constituent indicator
APPENDIX (data tables)